Why was the Great Patriotic War a struggle for oil and industry?


The Great Patriotic War became the largest conflict in which the USSR participated. She claimed tens of millions of lives and destroyed many cities. This was a completely new type of war that a person had not previously encountered.

The material was created with the informational support of the Moscow Refinery

The first half of the 20th century was a time of intensive industrialization in Europe and the USSR. The old order, which has not changed for centuries, has been replaced by new technologies and machine labor. The technique began to be widely used in all spheres of life.

Technology has changed a lot, too. Until the 20th century, soldiers easily maneuvered through enemy territory, and the defeat of the enemy army meant victory in the conflict. Now this was not enough. The war became a trench, and artillery, tanks and aircraft were needed to advance.

For the operation of equipment, factories produced shells and fuel, and trains promptly delivered them to the fronts.

On September 1, 1939, Germany attacked Poland, thereby unleashing World War II. However, the country was not ready for a protracted war. Germany provided itself with oil for only 10%, the rest had to be bought from Romania, Mexico and the USA.

By 1941, the Germans controlled all of Europe, but they could not solve the problems with the lack of fuel. Germany was unable to break through to the rich deposits of the Middle East. Nor did they manage to come to an agreement with the USSR on large oil supplies.

The Nazis had only one option: to subjugate the Soviet Union and take resources by force. On June 22, 1941, the Great Patriotic War began.

The first months of the war were unsuccessful for the Soviet army. She had to retreat, leave equipment and factories. The Germans were stopped only in October, 100 km from Moscow; by December, a counteroffensive began.

Soviet industry has accomplished a real heroic deed. It was possible to transport 1,500 large factories from the occupied territories to the Urals and Siberia.

Other enterprises operated under blockade in Moscow and other cities. A special role was played by fuel plants, supplying a precious resource to equipment and weapons. The main one is the Moscow Oil Refinery (then cracking plant No. 413), which refined oil in the Baku region and supplied

The plant had to work in conditions of constant bombing. Workers were in danger every day, while it was impossible to move inland and stop production due to lack of fuel at the front.

In order for the German aviation to bomb the plant, they went for a trick and built its life-size model. The raiders’ attention was distracted by the explosion of plywood installations.

Due to the increased demand for fuel, the Moscow Oil Refinery has established the production of kerosene, diesel fuel and other petroleum products, annually exceeding the plan by 14-25%. In 1942 he, together with other enterprises

During the war years, the refinery processed 3 million tons of oil and launched the production of many types of fuel. The enterprise continued to expand, and today it is one of the flagships of the Moscow industry.

Germany never got the Soviet oil. The USSR was able to protect its resources, open new factories and expand production.