The cemetery of empires, the abode of the unconquered — these are the epithets Afghanistan has received from modern publicists. Indeed, over the past 300 years, the mountainous country has experienced several interventions and, formally, managed to maintain its independence.
But is Afghanistan so indestructible? Who throughout history has managed to conquer the Afghans, and
Afghanistan from the Persian language is «the country of the silent». The first proto-states are here
Today you cannot say so, but in the Early Middle Ages, Afghan was a developed and prosperous region, distinguished by densely populated cities and high culture. At this time, the country surpassed all Western European states in terms of development.
For a long time, Afghans were part of various states. From the 6th century BC the edge was
The Mongols thoroughly destroyed the region, destroying almost all the achievements of local science. After them the Iranians occupied the region again. In 1747 with the fall of the empire
In the 19th century, the region turned out to be a place of rivalry between the Russian and British empires and was briefly conquered by the British. Officially, highlanders
Until 1989, Afghanistan, in fact, was included in the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union. The socialist bloc developed industry in the region and rebuilt infrastructure, and in return Moscow had the right to shape the foreign policy of the state.
The situation began to change since 1973, when a coup d’etat took place in Afghanistan. For the region
But the States were also unable to clean up the region. All this time, partisans were hiding in the mountains, with whom the local population sympathized. It was unhappy with the fact that the Europeans made a battlefield out of their country.
These are radical Islamists, those people who, despite the changing government in Kabul, have been continuing the war of independence for 3 centuries. Neither the British colonial troops, nor the Soviet army, nor the American special forces could defeat these people.
Why did the high-tech armies of the superpowers fail in Afghanistan?
It’s all about the mountainous region, the hot climate and the sympathy of the local population for the partisans. Both the Soviet and American armies easily defeated the rebels in battles and occupied cities. But Afghanistan is a rural country, in villages
The rebels flee into the mountains, from where they launch surprise attacks. Add to this the aggressive Islamist ideology of the Taliban, who, like the Vikings, want death to go to Paradise and endure all the hardships of wartime. It is really impossible to defeat such people completely.
In 2021, the United States will withdraw its troops from Afghanistan, effectively being defeated by the Taliban. As a result, the country will either slide into uncontrolled chaos, drawing all its neighbors there, or Russia will again have to spend its energy on controlling the region.