Overeating everyone and not getting better is a unique ability that
Food that enters the body is broken down into proteins, fats, carbohydrates and amino acids. They are absorbed by the digestive system, enter the bloodstream and are carried through the cells.
Cells break down nutrients into simple compounds or convert them into energy. This process is called catabolism. Then the process of anabolism occurs — the formation of new cells and tissues. Both stages of chemical reactions are called by one general term — metabolism or metabolism.
The energy we get from food is usually counted in calories. 1 calorie is energy that can heat 1 gram of water by 1 ° C.
Most of the energy obtained from food
10% of the energy is spent on the digestion of the food itself — processing and breaking down into nutrients. The most energy-consuming protein food, it takes up to a third of calories for its assimilation. The least energy consuming fruits and vegetables — from 3 to 10%.
The remaining 30% is excess energy that can be released for physical activity
Accordingly, with a sedentary lifestyle, these 30% will be saved in reserve. This is the excess weight that causes a storm of indignation in a person.
The faster calories are burned, the slimmer a person is. Rapid metabolism leads to rapid processing of nutrients, which leaves no reserves left. Thin people do not have energy reserves, all the food they receive is absorbed and immediately consumed.
The body of overweight people is more economical. They have a slow metabolism
The metabolic rate depends on many factors: sports, the presence of bad habits, the quality of food. But the main thing is a genetic predisposition. Geneticists
Two curious genes, AMY1 and ALK, play a decisive role. The first is responsible for the production of saliva. Increased salivation helps break down carbohydrates faster. Fat people have only 1 pair of this gene. Slender people can have from 3 to 20 pairs of such genes.
ALK Gene Causes Slow Metabolism
From an evolutionary point of view, completeness is an advantage. People with slow metabolism were more likely to survive in the wild.
Thus, evolution deliberately instilled in humans the ability to economize on food. From this point of view, the predisposition to obesity is a gift, the result of millions of years of human development as a species.
Until the end of the 19th century, it was fat people with a rounded belly that were the standard of beauty. Such forms were considered a sign of well-being and good health. Slenderness and thinness revealed in a person a lack of nutrition or health problems.
Fashion for a slender body without excess weight appeared only towards the end of the 20th century. The modern economy, which has saturated the market with affordable and cheap food, has turned the frame of beauty exactly the opposite.
Genetic predisposition to be overweight is not the main factor in excess weight. But sometimes it can be decisive.