Who lived in Russia before the Slavs?

Modern man inhabited Eastern Europe and Asia a long time ago — 45 thousand years ago. However, agricultural settlements began to emerge only 7 thousand years ago, and they were not inhabited by the Slavs at all.

Slavic migration to these lands began only by the 5th century AD, that is, only 1500 years ago.

Modern man

9 thousand years ago, hunters first began to use a bow and arrow with a silicon tip. Hunting, fishing and gathering remained the main occupation of the population. It was at this time that the first wars between tribal organizations began to take place.

8 thousand years ago, in the area of ​​the modern Volga region, the Indo-Europeans were born — the ancestor of most of the modern peoples of Europe, South Asia and India. Their undulating migrations have been tracked by many archaeological cultures.

The territory of Russia will be occupied by the Yamnaya culture of the IV millennium — from the Southern Urals in the east to the Dniester in the west and the culture of battle axes of the III millennium in Eastern Europe. It is the «battle axes» that will become the ancestors of the peoples inhabiting Europe today.

In the north of the mainland, it was much colder, so people were forced to roam and hunt for food. Civilization and technology developed slowly here.

Before the Slavs, the peoples of the Iranian-speaking language group — the Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians — ruled in the steppe zone of Eastern Europe. The southern part of the mainland was inhabited by the Greeks: from the 7th century BC. Greek colonial cities began to emerge on the Black Sea coast.

In the north, the Baltic and Finno-Ugric tribes ruled. The latter inhabited lands from western Siberia to modern Moscow, but they lived separately from each other and did not even think about any single state.

The first state on the territory of Russia

Slavic proto-state

From that moment until the beginning of the 9th century, nomadic Turks dominated in Eastern Europe — the Turkic Khaganate, Great Bulgaria, the Khazar Khaganate.

The flourishing of Slavic culture and independent development began only after the arrival of the Varangians led by Rurik in 862, who united the scattered tribes and drove the nomadic peoples back.