The Huns are a mysterious people who shook the world from China to Italy. It was they who, in the IV century, provoked the Great Migration of Nations and broke through the borders of the indestructible Rome. But suddenly appearing in European history, they also suddenly disappeared after 150 years.
According to most modern researchers, the Huns are proto-Turkic tribes that once lived in northern China at the bend of the Yellow River. In the 3rd century BC. one of the local chiefs of Mode
Subsequently, the Hunnic-Chinese War
By the 1st century A.D. the nomadic power fell into decay. Some of the tribes joined the Mongolian state of Syanbi, others migrated to the West in search of a new homeland.
These refugees conquered new nomads, forcing the former owners to either join their number or retreat further to the west. This is how the Great Migration of Nations was provoked.
By the middle of the 4th century, the Huns reached Europe, in 374
However, by this time the appearance of the strong nomads had changed. Now they were a wild mixture of Mongol, Tungus, Korean, Tibetan, Iranian, Slavic, Finno-Ugric and Germanic tribes.
The term Huns became a political term — the name of all peoples subordinate to the Huns’ khans. Attila became the most legendary. Under him, the empire reached its highest prosperity and stretched from the territory of modern Kalmykia to Central Germany inclusive.
Like any other nomadic power, Attila’s empire was characterized by an extremely amorphous political organization and a lack of clear boundaries.
The power was not like European states with a clear bureaucratic system and vassal relations. Attila had an ordinary military-political alliance.
The power of the khan was based on tribute and the promise of the subordinate leaders to provide their army during the wars. At the same time, each leader had the right to refuse the patronage of Attila or even declare his claims to the supremacy in the union.
Thus, when Attila died in 453, the alliance collapsed and the Hunnic empire ceased to exist. Some of the original Hunnic tribes continued to control the Black Sea region until the beginning of the 6th century, and then simply disappeared among other nomadic peoples.
By the second half of the 6th century, these lands were conquered by the Turkic Khaganate — another early medieval nomadic state. All local nomads will be called Türks, and the term Huns will finally disappear.
For the Slavic tribes, the invasion of the Huns had a beneficial effect. The fact is that before the arrival of the Huns, the Slavs were conquered by the Germanic tribes of the Ostrogoths. The Huns destroyed the Ostrogoth state and thus prevented the Germanization of Eastern Europe.
It is interesting that the main headquarters of Attila was in the Slavic lands. Greek Ambassador Prisk Pannian,
At the table, the ambassador was treated to mead and kvass, and then hugged and kissed in the Scythian way. Priscus noted that the khan’s squad spoke different languages: Hunnic, Gothic and even Italic.
100 years later, another Greek Procopius of Caesarea, describing the Slavs,
Be that as it may, the Huns played an important role in the development of both the Eastern Slavs and the whole of Europe as a whole. For a long time, future commanders and conquerors will be inspired by them.