What scientists found in the Kola superdeep well at a depth of 12 kilometers


The Kola experimental mine is the deepest well on the planet. More than 25 years after the closure of the drilling station, the research of Soviet scientists continues to intrigue the world community.

The work of geologists turned out to be covered with an aura of mystery and became the subject of many feature films and books, and scientific discoveries shook all the ideas of mankind about the structure of the planet.

Unlike modern superdeep wells laid for mining or prospecting for minerals, the Soviet project was initially purely scientific in nature.

The station was supposed to confirm or deny theoretical models of the structure of the earth’s crust and explore the boundaries of the layers of the lithosphere.

Scientists have determined the location of the well for a reason.


With the collapse of the USSR, funding for the project was significantly reduced. Drilling was completed in 1994, and in 1995 a powerful explosion thundered deep in the well, which finally buried the possibility of resuming the program.

Contrary to the expectations of geologists, the «layered structure» of the lithosphere has not been confirmed. According to the generally accepted model, the granite layer of the earth should have been replaced by basalt and have a clearly defined boundary. However, along the entire length of the well, only granite rocks were observed.

Also, scientists have refuted the heat map of the earth’s interior. Previously, it was believed that the temperature at a depth of 15 kilometers would be relatively low due to the distance from the layer of molten magma. In fact, it turned out that already on

Another surprise is the discovery deep underground of 14 species of fossilized microorganisms. The presence of organic matter in a 4 billion-year-old rock ore made it possible to conclude that life on Earth originated much earlier than science assumed.

At a depth of 7 to 10 kilometers, geologists

The Kola well also revealed the mystery of the origin of the Moon. Samples of the earth’s soil from a depth of 3 km turned out to be similar to the lunar soil. Today, the theory of the formation of the moon is based on the conclusions of Soviet scientists that the satellite was formed from pieces of the earth’s mantle.

The history of the superdeep well was not without mysticism. It’s all to blame for the mysterious accident in 1995, the reasons for which have remained unclear.

According to the head of work David Guberman, scientists

On April 1, Finnish newspapers published a humorous article that Russian scientists «got to the bottom» of Hell and heard the cries of sinners tortured by demons.

American journalists liked the idea of ​​the Finns, and in all seriousness they began to promote this legend. Later, the legend began to grow into details and a winged demon was added to the monstrous screams, which allegedly jumped out of the well and soared into the sky.

The Kola Superdeep has greatly expanded our understanding of the structure of the Earth. The knowledge gained can be compared with the discoveries of physicists at the Large Hadron Collider.