What have scientists discovered by colliding particles at the Large Hadron Collider?


The LHC is the largest experimental setup for accelerating particles, where all physicists in the world dream of working. It made a lot of noise when it launched in 2008. Some predicted the death of the planet from an accidentally created black hole, others hoped to expand our understanding of the universe and accelerate the development of technology.

What have scientists learned about the world after 13 years of the collider’s work?

Elementary particles are the bricks that make up the matter around us. The modern understanding of the physics of micro-objects is called the Standard Model. This is the basic scientific law that describes the structure of everything around and the rules for the interaction of particles with each other.

The problem is that even with the current level of technology, science cannot yet explain many of the phenomena that occur in the distant corners of the Universe.

Dark matter, dark energy, spatial and temporal changes, many phenomena of gravity, the absence of antimatter in the Universe and other paradoxes remain mysteries for humanity.

Physicists are putting forward dozens of new models that should unite all of science into a single theory. The Large Hadron Collider, the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world, had to confirm or refute these models in order to bring our understanding of the universe closer.

It is not yet necessary to talk about any grandiose discoveries that turned the whole world upside down, even 13 years after the launch of the LHC. Nevertheless, thanks to the device, the boundaries of physics have nevertheless expanded, and the microcosm has overgrown with many new «elementary inhabitants».

This name in the circle of scientists was given to an elementary particle,

The theory explains how particles acquire mass and how they can exchange it. Exactly

Thanks to this, the Higgs boson has earned the name «devil’s particle». His finding not only confirmed the Standard Model, but also opened the field for new research in elementary physics.

Another candidate for the longest search: theoretically it was discovered in 1994, but

A quark is the smallest, fundamental unit of matter. The top quark is its heaviest representative. The object is interesting for breaking the electroweak symmetry of particles and studying the above-described Higgs boson.

Particle discovered in 2015. Was

This exotic subatomic object lives for less than a moment, about 10⁻²⁰ seconds. The peculiarity of pentaquark is that it consists of 5 quarks — this is not natural for the microworld. Physicists will have to find the answer how such a particle can exist in principle.

Objects resulting from the collision of various particles with each other. They have unusual physical properties, but they do not live long and only within the collider.

They are so little studied that they have only code names. For example, «Sigma-6097» is a neutron with one quark having a negative charge. «Sigma-bi-6097-plus» is a positively charged proton consisting of three quarks.

13 years, on the scale of the entire history of the study of physics, is only an instant. Therefore, truly great discoveries are still waiting for us in the future, and the Large Hadron Collider will help make them!