Haiti is officially considered the first power in history where black slaves were able to organize a successful uprising and form a country of their own. In the 19th century, their success challenged the theory of white supremacy and frightened all slaveholders in America.
However, after the liberation from the oppressors, the Haitians were not remembered for their successful economy or cultural achievements.
Almost nothing is known about the Haitian revolution of 1791 in popular culture. However, the local war for freedom was the largest slave revolt in the last 2,000 years of human history. Then the weapons were raised by 500 thousand blacks and 28 thousand mulattoes. But how did it happen?
The island of Haiti was
Local Indians did not want to work on the plantations, and therefore they were completely exterminated by the colonialists. Instead, black slaves were brought to Haiti. Life expectancy of an African on a plantation
The supply of slaves increased, the plantations expanded. By the end of the 17th century, the island produced up to 40% of all sugar in the world and was the subject of fierce rivalry between the great powers.
In 1697, half of the island was conquered by the French. For almost 100 years, Haiti remained the richest French colony. However, in 1789, a democratic revolution broke out in Paris. Ideas of freedom, equality and fraternity have swept into the Caribbean.
Haitian mulattoes, descendants of mixed marriages, have claimed their rights. However, the colonial government replied that the revolution in Paris did not concern Haiti. The mulattos raised an uprising, which was soon supported by blacks — 90% of the island’s population.
Charles Leclerc’s 60,000-strong corps, sent to suppress the revolution personally by Napoleon, did not achieve success. Mainly because the British helped the black revolutionaries.
In January 1804, after 13 years of resistance, the blacks
The fate of the liberated French colony turned out to be typical for most African countries of the 20th century. The republic is mired in endless internecine wars. This continued until, in 1915, Haiti was occupied by American troops.
After 20 years, the US authorities left the island, but they still retain their influence. It is expressed in the establishment of a Haitian dictatorship loyal to America.
François Duvalier became one of these dictators. From 1957 to 1987, the black tyrant and his hereditary son Jacques killed up to 60 thousand of their own population and robbed the country so much that today it is considered one of the poorest powers in the world.
The Duvalier clan was needed by the United States as a counterweight to Soviet Cuba. However, if the USSR built hospitals, roads and schools in Cuba, then the States did not build anything in Haiti. On the contrary, American businessmen were plundering local resources.
Unfortunately, after the overthrow of Duvalier, the situation in the republic has not changed much. In 2004, a rebellion against another American protégé, Aristide, was raised by militants of the Army of Cannibals. The US Marine Corps and French Special Forces had to pacify the black terrorists.
In 2010, the island experienced a strong earthquake. More than 200 thousand people died. The entire infrastructure was destroyed. The money to restore it has been stolen.
Today, 11.5 million people live in Haiti. 60% of them
Having achieved success in the struggle for their rights, Haitians have not been able to build a political system that works for the good of society. And frequent cataclysms finish off an already fragile state.