The Higgs field quantum is the most famous elementary particle in physics in society. In 2012, the news of its discovery exploded the entire information space like a bomb. However, reading complex terms, few people understand why the famous boson is useful.
All matter around us has a mass — a directionless quantity that determines the basic properties of an object.
Matter is made up of atoms. This means that the mass of a body is determined by the sum of its atoms. They, in turn, are composed of elementary particles. It turns out that they must also have mass.
However, the physics of elementary particles is somewhat more complicated. Some particles, for example, protons, neutrons and electrons, have mass. Others, photons, gluons, bosons, do not have mass.
It is believed 14 billion years ago when the universe was only
However, at a certain moment, the Higgs mechanism of breaking the electroweak symmetry occurred, and some particles acquired mass — a measure of inertia or the ability of a body to interfere with its acceleration.
The Higgs mechanism is clearly presented as follows: foam balls are scattered on the table — an analogue of massless particles. They scatter in all directions even from a weak breeze.
But if you sprinkle the foam on the surface of the water, then the liquid will make it difficult for the balls to move. Liquid is analogous to the Higgs field. The Higgs boson is a foam ball that gains mass when it is in water.
However, as a result of the Higgs mechanism, a group of particles — bosons, acquire mass, and photons still remain massless. This is how symmetry is broken.
In a broad sense, this theory explains how the universe and all the matter around us was born. The mechanism was discovered back in 1964 by British physicist Peter Higgs. However, it was impossible to confirm its existence. The scientist simply assumed that it should be so.
Until 2012, scientists from all over the world
Thus, the discovery of the boson officially closed all questions about how the universe was born.
It’s funny that initially the boson was called «damn» — in English «goddamn». So physicists let the world know how tired they were while looking for this particle. However, the editors considered the term not politically correct and shortened the word to «god» — divine. This is how the Higgs boson became a «particle of God.»