Khazars, Pechenegs and Polovtsians were once some of the largest tribes in Eastern Europe. Hordes of nomads made regular attacks on the Slavic principalities, often broke through the borders of Byzantium and kept all Central Asian states in suspense.
However, having unexpectedly appeared at the dawn of the history of Russia, these peoples also suddenly disappeared by the XIII century.
Khazars are one of the Turkic tribes who moved from the depths of Asia to Europe during the Great Migration. This is a fragment of the Turkic Kaganate — a huge empire that in the 6th century occupied the territory from the modern Khabarovsk Territory to Central Ukraine.
In 650, when the Turkic Kaganate
Khazaria is an empire of contradictions. As nomads, the Khazars built large stone cities. A unique religious situation developed here: Judaism, Islam, Christianity and paganism peacefully coexisted in the state.
In the 9th century, during its heyday, the kaganate competed on equal terms with Byzantium, controlled the entire Caucasus, the steppe Crimea, the Volga region, the southern lands of Russia and part of modern Kazakhstan.
Where did this powerful people disappear to? In the year 964
After the destruction of large Khazar cities, the empire collapsed. The Khazars dissolved in the Turkic-speaking environment of the Oguzes and Pechenegs. Today, the Krymchaks and Karaites, the disappearing peoples of the Crimea, consider themselves to be the descendants of the Khazars.
Another Turkic people,
However, part of the Pechenezh tribes migrated further to the West and went to the borders of Bulgaria, displacing the Magyars who lived there. After the collapse of the Khazar Kaganate, the Pechenegs occupied the entire steppe from Western Kazakhstan to Hungary.
In the history of Russia, nomads played not only a negative role. The princes actively used the Turks in their internecine wars and, quite often, entered into alliances against the Greeks and the aforementioned Khazars.
The disappearance of the Pechenegs is associated with the arrival of the Polovtsian tribes in the steppe
The Polovtsian tribes carried out regular attacks on the Slavic principalities, concentrating on the capture of captives, livestock and grain. It was the Cumans in Russian culture that received the nickname «snakes», becoming the prototype of the fabulous Serpent Gorynych
The end of the Polovtsian history was put by the Mongols, who defeated the former masters of the steppe and annexed them to their empire. However, after the split of the empire of Genghis Khan and the formation of the Golden Horde, the Cumans turned out to be the main state-forming people.
After the 18th century, n