The Roman Empire is one of the greatest powers in human history. Back in the 5th century BC. Rome
Neighboring tribes were in no way inferior to the Romans in development.
Rome grew up on the remnants of the neighboring Etruscan civilization. The Etruscans actively traded with Ancient Greece and Carthage, had a strong army and generally dominated Italy. However, later the Etruscan kings lost their power.
The Romans actively borrowed the achievements of the Etruscans
If the neighboring Italian tribes were peasant tribal unions, and Carthage and the Greek colonies were purely trade policies, then Rome absorbed two elements at once.
Trade led to enrichment, the appropriation of technological innovations from neighbors, as well as the development of diplomacy. Peasant labor stabilized the economy: saturating the market with food, making the Romans independent of outside supplies, and provoking rapid population growth.
The form of government is another aspect that distinguished the ancient state from the rest of the powers of Antiquity. Rome was a Republic and
The democratic element was represented by the popular assembly, the aristocratic power was expressed in the form of the Senate, and the monarchical power through two consuls, elected for 1 year.
These branches held each other back. The Senate did not allow the state to slide into populism and the whims of the crowd, the popular assembly kept the consuls in check, and they, through the support of the people, could compete with the Senate.
None of the neighboring states had this
The Roman legion is a unique phenomenon for its time. Organization, tactics and support made the legion invincible. Transition to the chess structure of construction and maniples
The Romans were pushed to such a reform by the hostile tribes of Gauls and Samnites. They could fight both in close formation and in loose formation. The Roman phalanx was clumsy and suffered defeat after defeat. In 387 BC. Gauls in general
To prevent this from happening again
Slavery played a significant role in the rise of Rome. It has existed in the state since time immemorial, and one of the reasons for its expansion was precisely the capture of slaves in new territories. However, by the 1st century A.D. only rich citizens could afford servants, and from the II century, slavery practically disappeared on the territory of the empire.
Be that as it may, neither the Greeks, nor the Carthaginians, nor the numerous barbarian tribes were able to cope with Rome and became part of the huge empire.