The deportations of 1930-1950 are one of the most dramatic chapters in Soviet and Russian history. According to NKVD documents, during the entire period of Joseph Stalin’s rule, more than 3.5 million residents of the country underwent forced migration.
The resettlement was accompanied by numerous crimes, deprived people of their livelihood and caused the death of hundreds of thousands of people from hunger and disease.
After the Soviet-Polish war of 1920 on the territory of the USSR, primarily in Belarus and Ukraine,
According to reports from Soviet ministers, by the 1930s, Polish intelligence had infiltrated all key industrial enterprises of the USSR, created numerous underground nationalist structures, and was aware of all events in its eastern neighbor.
The NKVD’s reaction was immediate. In April 1936, 36 thousand Poles were resettled to North Kazakhstan. In addition, by 1938, 19 thousand people were sent to the GULAG camps, and 84 thousand were shot for treason.
In 1939-1941, Poles from Western Ukraine, Western Belarus and Lithuania were deported. This time to Siberia forcibly
In 1937, Koreans living in the Far East were suspected of aiding the Japanese Empire. The Soviet-Japanese war seemed inevitable, and the Koreans could help the enemy in this conflict. As a result, the NKVD cleaned out the local elite, destroying officials and the intelligentsia.
The remaining 172,000 Asians were
True, unlike the Poles, the attitude of the Bolsheviks towards Koreans was better. The families were compensated for the damage for the abandoned farm and a free aid in the amount of 3,000 rubles was issued.
The reason for the deportation of the Kalmyks was the massive cooperation of the population with the Germans during the occupation in 1942. Even after the liberation of the region by Soviet troops, local gangs continued the partisan war against the USSR.
Resettlement was seen as a punishment for betrayal. In December 1943, the Soviet leadership abolished the Kalmyk ASSR and forcibly
But even after the deportation, the nationalists continued to conduct anti-Soviet propaganda, escaping and committing crimes against the local population. As a result of the repressions, 16 thousand people died.
Two peoples who shared a common destiny. Caucasians and Tatars were recognized as unreliable nations, which showed themselves during the war from the worst side. In January 1944, there were
The eviction was pretty tough. The army often met armed resistance and did not spare the local residents. The personal household of the settlers was
People were limited in food and water, and they deliberately provoked a high mortality rate on the way. As a result, every fourth Chechen and every third Tatar did not survive the migration.
In general, dozens of peoples were forced to evict, including Jews, Greeks, Turks, and Armenians. After Stalin’s death, the authorities condemned the deportations, and people were allowed to return to their homeland.