Since 1478, Russia
The reason for the struggle was the refusal of the Livonian Confederation to pay tribute,
Realizing that a war with the Baltic neighbor would be inevitable, Ivan the Terrible organized a military campaign to Livonia. At first, everything went well for Russia: both Livonia and Lithuania were completely defeated. But
As a result, in 1569 a new huge state appeared on the political map — Rzeczpospolita, which renewed the war with Moscow with new forces.
The events in the Baltics coincided with the campaigns of the Crimean Tatars against Russia and the invasion of the Swedes. Squeezed from all sides, Moscow was forced to conclude an armistice with the Poles and Swedes.
The result of the conflict was the thorough devastation of northwestern Russia, the loss of Livonia, Belarus and the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland. The war drained the country’s internal resources and led to a protracted economic decline. Subsequently, the opponents finally deprived Russia of access to the Baltic Sea for 150 years.
For 20 years, Russia has been at war with its main rival, Sweden. After the defeat of the Swedes at Poltava, the local king Charles II fled to the Ottoman Empire. He and the Crimean Khan Davlet II Girey persuaded the Turkish Sultan Ahmed III to declare war on Russia.
Peter I decided to act offensively: to inflict distracting blows on the Tatars with a small number, and at this time
The 80,000-strong Russian army, including the tsar himself, entered deep into Moldova and
As a result, Peter I admitted defeat. The Russian army received the right to return home, but in return the tsar returned the entire coast of the Sea of Azov to the Sultan.
In the second half of the 19th century, Japan experienced a powerful industrial and economic boom — the Meiji Revolution. In less than half a century, the Japanese adopted all the achievements of Western civilization, pulled up their military power and thought about expanding into Asia.
This was prevented by the Russian Empire, which was firmly established in Manchuria and Korea. In 1904
Russia was defeated at sea and was forced to abandon its positions in Chinese Manchuria. As a result, the Russians ceded to the Japanese the rights to Korea and the territory of Sakhalin with all the adjacent islands, as well as the Liaodong Peninsula along with Port Arthur.
The defeat significantly undermined the state prestige of Russia. The empire lost its status as the hegemon and the main military force in the world. The failure showed all the weakness of the monarchy and became the reason for the development of a revolutionary situation in the country.